Latin Notes

Nouns - check for case, number, gender
used as:
-subject (who or what before the verb) - usually nominative case
-direct object (who or what after the verb) - mostly accusative, sometimes dative case
-indirect object (to whom or for whom after the direct object) - dative case
-object of the preposition - accusative or ablative case

(anything that is a regular tense = indicative) - Translated as "...had"

Subjunctive - (joined up with the main clause of the sentence)

Pluperfect subjunctive:
- 3rd participle part + 'sse' + personal endings. Translated as "had ...".

The six pluperfect endings:
1st person
-eram - I was
2nd person
3rd person

Imperfect subjunctive:
- infinitive + personal endings. Translated as "was/were/use to ...".

sin: ancilla (-a)
pl: ancillae (-ae)
sin: servus (-us)
pl: servi (-i)
sin: leo (- ---)
pl: leones (-es)
sin: ancillae (-ae)
pl: ancillarum (-arum)
sin: servi (-i)
pl: servorum (-orum)
sin: leonis (-is)
pl: leonum (-um)
(indirect object)
sin: ancillae (ae)
pl: ancillis (-is)
sin: servo (-o)
pl: servis (-is)
sin: leoni (-i)
pl: leonibus (-ibus)
(direct object)
sin: ancillam (-am)
pl: ancillas (-as)
sin: servum (-um)
pl: servos (-os)
sin: leonem (-em)
pl: leones (-es)
(with preposition)
sin: ancilla (-a)
pl: ancillis (-is)
sin: servo (-o)
pl: servis (-is)
sin: leone (-e)
pl: leonibus (-ibus)

The word "dative" itself comes from the Latin word "dare" meaning "to give".

Pronouns - follow the same rules as nouns and are used in the place of nouns

accusative object pronouns:
me - I
te - you
nos - we
vos - you

Adjectives - match the noun that they describe in case, number, and gender. They do not always have the same ending as their noun, example: "puer fortis" and "senex stultus" do not have regular, comparative and superlative forms.

Verbs - check for person, number and tense. Verbs also have mood. Present and imperfect tenses are formed from the infinitive (2nd participial part). Perfect and pluperfect tenses are formed from the 3rd participle part. Forms of the word "sum" and other irregular verbs have different roots.

imperative - (commands) - Translated as "...!" Imperatives are any verb with an exclamation mark after them. They can be singular or plural depending on who is being ordered.

Infinitive: portare - to carry


Participials -  verb forms that use noun endings that act like an adjective.

Present Participles:
- need a verb base, end in -ns or contain -nt-, have a 3rd declension ending.

Perfect Passive Participles:
- are the 4th participle part, often use an "a" or "ab" phrase and have 1st or 2nd declension endings.
Passive voice is used when translating Perfect Passive Participles, this is where the subject has something done to it. Example: "The book is being carried by the boy."

Perfect Active Participles:
(are exactly like perfect present participles accept for they translate actively)
Example: "precatus" which translates as "having preyed"
Perfect active participles come from deponent verbs.

(contain ... -dum est) Translate as "must ..."

porto - I carry, I am carrying
portas -
portat - he carries, he is carrying
portamus -
portatis -
portant -

portabam - I was carrying
portabas - you were carrying
portabat - he/she/it was carrying
portabamus - we were carrying
portabatis - you were carrying
portabant - they were carrying

portavi - I carried
portavisti - you carried
portavit - he/she/it carried
portavimus - we carried
portavistis - you carried
portaverunt - they watched

Prepositions - take an object (noun) in the accusative or ablative case. They do not change their form.

Adverbs - usually answer the question 'how' or 'when'. Most do not change their forms. Some have regular, comparative and superlative forms.

Regular: notius/-a/-um, ferox/ferocis, iratus/-a/-um, fortis/forte

Comparative: notior, ferocior, irator, fortior

Superlative: notusimus, forocissimus, iratissimus, forimus

Conjunctions - join words, phrases or clauses. They do not change their forms.

Interjections - show excitement or emotion. They are usually followed by an exclamation point.

esse - to be
1st person:
sum - I am
sumus - we are
2nd person:
es - you are
estis - you are
3rd person:
est - he/she/it is
sunt - they are

1st person
2nd person
3rd person

possum - I am able
posseram - I was able
posserat - he/she/it was able

plueperfect: - had carried

subject - verb - indirect object - direct object
He - bought - her - a ring

subject - verb - indirect object - direct object
They - told - me - the truth

1st person: porto - I carry
imperfect: portabam
portamus - we carry
imperfect: portabatis
2nd person: portas - you carry
imperfect: portabas
portatis - you carry
imperfect: portabatis
3rd person: portat - he, she, it carries (is carrying)
imperfect: portabat
portant - they carry (are carrying)
imperfect: portabant

Example Questions:

"What tense is ...?" (present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect)

"What person is ...?" (1st, 2nd, 3rd)

"What number is ...?" (singular, plural)

"What case is ...?" (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, vocative)

"What kind of word is ...?" (adverb, adjective, preposition, pronoun, noun, verb, conjunction, interjection)

"What form of the verb is ...?" (infinitive, imperfect subjunctive)

"What form of the adjective is ...?" (positive, comparative, superlative)

"What word does ... go with?"

Latin Poetry

-length of vowels
-rhythm patterns

dactylic hexameter

dactyl - with short
6 feet

spondare --

trochaic -u (only at end of the line)

long vowels:
-diphthans - two vowels match one sound
-followed by two consonants
-marked with a macron
-four vowels = one consonant

-always start scansion with a long mark

-the letter 'h' is completely ignored
(in latin 'h' is a breathing mark and is not considered a letter)

-the number of marks = the number of syllables in each word

liquid rule:
"a vowel followed by two consonants is long accept when followed by 'L' or 'r'"

Latin verse differs from most English verse in two respects: it is not rhymed, and its rhythms depend primarily on arrangements of long and short syllables rather than on recurring patterns of accented and unaccented syllables. It is difficult for us to hear this rhythm when we read Latin verse aloud, since our ears are trained to follow the accents of words rather than the length of syllables; but it is important for us to grasp the principles of Latin versification if we are to understand the techniques and stylistic variations of Latin poetry.
The various kinds of Latin poetry had their own appropriate rhythms, or meters. For example, epic (like Ovid's l1eL?naorpl-zoses) was written in the meter called dactylic hexameter: that is, each line has six (Greek hexa) divisions, called feet, and the recurring pattern is that of the foot called a dach,l, a long syllable followed bv t:~> shc~~t s,-Ilables.

Length of syllables
1. A syllable is long by nature if it contains a dip thong (ae, au, ei, eu, ge, or ui) or a long vowel
An i between two vowels, as in eius, really represents two is (eiius), so that the syllable before it becomes a diphthong and i long by nature.
2. A syllable is long by position if its vowel is followed by two or more consonants.
a. H is not considered to be a consonant.
b. An initial i followed by a vowel is a consonant_
c. Qu and Cu aree counted as one consonant,
d. X is treated as two consonants (ks); likewise ~ (= dz).
e. The two consonants which follow the vowel need not be in the
same word: et is a short syllable in et amat, a long syllable in et
pn rfa f .
3. All other syllables are short.
B, c, d, 6, p, or t followed by 1 or r may be treated as either two consonants or one consonant. Thus if a short vowel is followed by one of these combinations the syllable may be either long by position or short, whichever the meter requires. Such a syllable
is called a common syllable.

vowel (or a vowel followed by m) at the end of a word is normally omitted if the following word begins with a vowel (or an h). This omission is called elision.

The analysis of meter is called scansion, or scanning. It consists of marking elisions with an elision mark (---~ ), marking long syllables with a macron (-)and short syllables with a breve and separating the feet by vertical lines_
Metrical Feet
Only three kinds of feet occur in dactylic hexameter:
1. The dactyl: a long syllable followed by two short syllables {- V L )
2. The spondee: two long syllables {-- )
3. The trochee: a long syllable followed by a short syllab e
Dactylic Hexameter
Dactylic hexameter has six feet in each tine. Each of the first four may be either a dactyl or a spondee; the fifth is always a dactyl; an:' the sixth is either a spondee or a trochee. A pause in the sense usually occurs in the middle of the third foot (sometimes in the fourth). This is called the caesura; it is marked by two vertical lines_ Thus the pattern of dactylic hexameter is
Lines 193-196 of Daedalus and hares are scanned as follows:
Turn no me di as
et I ce ris ad li gat i mas,
„ .,
at que i to com po si I tas 11 par I vo cur va mi ne flec tit,

ut ve ras i mi I to tur a I yes_ ~~
., ., u er l ca
rusI una
sta bat et, ig na i rus 11 su a ~ se trac I to re pe I ri da
This quantitative form of meter was not natural to Latin, but was borrowed, in the third century s.c., from Greek poetry. This fact gives a certain artificiality to Latin poetry: the word order must often be distorted violently to fit the meter, and since there are some words which cannot be used at all in certain meters (e.g. trnperator in dactylic hexameter), a good deal of circumlocution becomes necessary.

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