Solar cells are made from materials that have the property known as being photovoltaic. Photovoltaic materials produce electrical current as a result of being hit by photons. The process converts light energy into electrical energy that can then be used to power electronic devices.
The Three Laws of Photovoltaics:
In order for a material to be classified as photovoltaic it must obey the following rules:
- The absorption of light, generating either electron-hole pairs or excitons.
- The separation of charge carriers of opposite types.
- The separate extraction of those carriers to an external circuit.